Vol. 2 - June - No. 31Glands
The endocrine system is made up of hormone-secreting glands. It acts as the body's regulating system, coordinating and controlling all activity. The location of these endocrine, or internal secretion glands, is indicated in the diagrammatic illustration at right. The chemical secretions of these ductless glands are circulated throughout the body by the blood stream. These secretions strongly influence the entire personality. The endocrine glands of man and woman are identical except for the sex glands, or gonads. One will note, sex glands in both sexes is here given, as well as definitions of principal glands:
Pituitary gland - The body's "master gland." Its hormones control many body activities including general body growth, use of stored fat, amount of water in the urine, and production of milk. Other pituitary hormones work indirectly by stimulating the thyroid, adrenal, and sex glands.
Thymus - In young children, this helps the body fight infection.
Thyroid gland - This produces a hormone that controls growth rate and the rate at which the body uses stored energy.
Parathyroid gland - Four tiny glands embedded in the thyroid. Their hormones control the body's use of calcium and phosphorus.
Liver - The Largest of glands produces a liquid called bile, which passes via a tube to the small intestine, where it is needed to digest fats. The liver also makes heparin, which stops the blood from clotting.
Pancreas - Cells called Islets of Langerhans produce the hormone insulin, which controls the body's sugar use.
Adrenal glands - One above each kidney. Their hormone adrenalin controls physical effort and prepares the body to face danger.
Ovaries - In women, these produce hormones involved in sexual development and the menstrual cycle.
Testes and testicles - In men, these produce hormones for male sexual development.
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